Airplane: Air Canada operates the largest domestic flight network with its subsidiary Air Canada Jazz, serving around 150 destinations.
However, several low-cost airlines are trying to capture a larger market share in Canada. The largest company among them is WestJet. In response, Air Canada is offering cheap “Tango” fares that are sometimes even lower than budget airlines’ prices.
In Canada, there are many independent regional and local airlines, especially in the north, around 75 airlines in total. Major domestic airlines include:
Air Canada – flies across Canada
Air Canada Jazz – regional flights in Western and Eastern Canada.
Air Creebec – flies to northern Québec and Ontario, including Chisasibi and Chibougamau from Montreal.
According to allcitycodes, WestJet is a low cost airline with destinations across Canada.
Provincial Airlines – flies to Newfoundland and Labrador.
Air Inuit Flies – flies from Montreal to all Inuit communities in Nunavik, including Kuujjuaq and Puvirnituq.
Air North – flights within British Columbia, Alberta, Yukon, Northwest Territories and Alaska.
Kivalliq Air – flies to Nunavut from Winnipeg and Churchill.
Air St-Pierre – Flights from Eastern Canada to the French-speaking areas of the Newfoundland coast.
Bearskin Airlines – connects 15 destinations in Ontario and eastern Manitoba.
Air Labrador – flights within Newfoundland and Labrador.
Sunwing – charter airline that flies across Canada.
Calm Air – Flights across Manitoba and Nunavut.
Canadian North – Flights to the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
Pacific Coastal Airlines – Flights between Vancouver and many British Columbia destinations.
Central Mountain Air – destinations across British Columbia and Alberta.
First Air – flies from Ottawa, Montreal, Winnipeg and Edmonton to 24 Arctic destinations including Whitehorse and Iqaluit.
Hawkair – flies between northern British Columbia and Vancouver as well as Victoria.
Kenn Borek Air – flies to Iqaluit and other communities around Nunavut.
Seair Seaplanes – flies between Vancouver and the Southern Gulf Islands in British Columbia.
Transwest Air – provides flight connections in Saskatchewan.
Ship: In British Columbia and the Atlantic provinces of Canada, there are numerous ferry connections between the mainland and offshore islands.
If you want to transfer a vehicle or use a cabin, you should book in advance, especially in the summer high season and bank holidays. Major ferry companies in Canada include:
Coastal Transport Ferries – provides a ferry service between Blacks Harbor and Grand Manan, New Brunswick.
Bay Ferries – operates year-round between Saint John, New Brunswick and Digby, Nova Scotia.
BC Ferries – serves 46 ports on 25 routes including Vancouver Island, the Gulf Islands, the Sechelt Peninsula along the Sunshine Coast and the Queen Charlotte Islands.
Marine Atlantic – sails between Port aux Basques and Argentia (Newfoundland) and North Sydney (Nova Scotia).
Provincial Ferry Services – operates coastal ferries across Newfoundland.
CTMA Ferries – operates daily between Îles de la Madeleine (Quebec) and Souris (Prince Edward Island).
East Coast Ferries – connects Deer Island with Campobello Island (New Brunswick).
Labrador Marine – sails between Newfoundland and Labrador.
Northumberland Ferries – connects Wood Island, Prince Edward Island and Caribou in Nova Scotia.
Train: VIA Rail operates most of the intercity and regional passenger trains in Canada. The company connects most major cities and around 450 smaller towns along the routes. There are no rail links to Newfoundland, Prince Edward Island or the Northern Territories. In some remote parts of the country, trains are the only way to transport overland. In all, there are around 40 regional rail companies in Canada.
Passenger trains are most common in the southern parts of the provinces of Ontario and Quebec. Numerous trains connect Montreal and Toronto. Trains run from Montreal to Ottawa, Quebec City, Jonquière and the Gaspé Peninsula. Trains run from Toronto to Windsor, London, Kingston, Niagara Falls, Sarnia and White River, among others.
Traveling by train is more expensive than by bus, but it is also more convenient. There are also numerous special offers. Return tickets are cheaper than one-way prices and if you can get the tickets five days in advance, you save 30 to 40 percent. Students save with an ISIC card, if you are older than 60 you get a 10 percent discount. There are also discounts for children.
VIA Rail’s longest continuous route runs between Toronto and Vancouver. Trains run three times a week on this route via Winnipeg, Saskatoon, Edmonton and Jasper, the journey time is three days. Another long-distance route connects Churchill on Hudson Bay with Winnipeg.
The Rocky Mountaineer runs from Vancouver via Banff to Calgary, between Whistler and Jasper and from Vancouver to Jasper. On these routes you have a very good view of the Rocky Mountains.
The Polar Bear Express runs six times a week from Toronto via North Bay, Cochrane to Moosonee between the end of June and the end of August. This route runs right through the wilderness of Canada.
Car: The longest highway in Canada is the approximately 8,000 km long Trans-Canada Highway, it runs from the west of the country (Vancouver in British Columbia) to the east (St. John’s in Newfoundland). In Canada, right-hand traffic and seat belts are mandatory, the speed limits in urban areas are 50 km / h, on country roads 80 km / h, on highways 100 km / h.
To rent a vehicle in Canada, one must normally be at least 25 years old in Canada, have a valid national driver’s license (an international driver’s license may be required if one is not from an English or French speaking country) and a credit card. American Express, Diners, Visa and MasterCard are almost always accepted at car rental companies, and JCB and Discover are usually accepted too, but it’s best to check in advance. Some companies also rent cars to drivers between the ages of 21 and 24 for an additional fee. Under the age of 21 or without a credit card, you can usually not get a rental car.
Large international car rental companies can usually be found at airports, train stations, and in city centers. In Canada, among others, are the companiesAvis, Dollar, Budget, Thrifty, Enterprise, Hertz, and National.
Local agencies often offer lower prices, so compare offers locally. These independent agencies are also more likely to accept drivers under the age of 25.
Bus: The dominant bus company Greyhound Canada operates an extensive network in central and western Canada (the total route length is approx. 193,000 km) and also offers routes to the USA. In Eastern Canada, Greyhound Canada is part of an alliance of regional bus companies, including Orléans Express in Québec and Acadian Lines in the maritime provinces. Usually you can switch between the buses of different companies here with a single ticket.
Tickets can be bought at the Greyhound terminals, but also over the phone or online. One-way tickets are usually valid for 60 days, return tickets for one year, but this may vary depending on the company and ticket type.
With the Go Anywhere Fare and the North America Discovery Pass Greyhound you to travel freely to the bus in a fixed period throughout Canada and the United States. However, these passes must be purchased outside of North America.
Even on remote routes there is a bus at least once a day, but usually much more frequently. There are hourly connections on the main routes.
The buses are usually clean, comfortable, and reliable.
Local bus companies include:
Acadian Lines Service – operates in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island.
Coach Canada – scheduled services in Ontario and between Toronto and Montreal.
Autobus Maheux Service – runs between Montréal and northwestern Quebec Province.
DRL Coachlines Service – Bus connections throughout Newfoundland.
Laidlaw Transit – operates in Ontario.
Voyageur – Provides connections in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec.
Limocar – regional bus service in the province of Québec.
Malaspina Coach Lines – Connections between Vancouver and the Sunshine Coast in British Columbia.
Ontario Northland – operates bus and rail routes between northern Ontario and Toronto.
Orléans Express – Connections in Eastern Québec.
Intercar – connects Québec City, Montréal and Tadoussac, as well as other locations in the province of Québec.
Pacific Coach Lines – provides coach services between Vancouver Island and British Columbia on the mainland.
Saskatchewan Transportation Company – operates in Saskatchewan.
Urban Buses: Buses are also the most widely used urban public transportation in Canada. Almost all cities have their own bus network. Most connections are geared towards commuters, so they drive particularly often in the early morning and afternoon and rarely in the evenings and on weekends.
There are standard fares in the city buses. Since the bus drivers do not change change, you should have the appropriate amount with you.
Metro: Toronto, Montreal, and Edmonton are the only cities in Canada that have a subway system. There are more underground connections in the morning and in the afternoon than in the afternoon and in the evening.
Taxi: Most major cities have taxis, usually metered. A tip of 10 to 15 percent is expected.