Those who love mountains and natural environments must have already visit eda national or State Park. Well, these parks are protected areas, also known as conservation units. Are areas designed to ensure the survival of the species, the preservation of natural diversity, the protection of natural landscapes little altered or of remarkable scenic beauty, the promotion of environmental education and eco tourism, encouraging scientific research, among other things.
In Brazil, there are protected areas of various categories, and the majority are public areas, managed by Governments (federal, State or municipal levels). And each has specific features and restrictions. The creation of protected areas is a very important tool for the conservation of biodiversity. Nevertheless, a very small yetthreatened natural areas is under this protection.
At the federal level, who governs the operation of protected areas is the National System of conservation units (SNUC), created by law No.. 9,985, 7/18/2000. the SNUC law instituted two main categories of units: Integral protection units and units of sustainable use.
The term full protection maintenance of ecosystems free of changes caused by human interference, admitting only the indirect use of its natural attributes. In this group include the ecological stations, biological reserves, national parks, natural monuments and wildlife refuges.
The national parks are the most popular and ancient category of full protectionconservation units. Your goal is to preserve ecosystems of great ecological significance and scenic beauty, making it possible to carry out scientific research, educational activities and environmental interpretation, recreation and eco-tourism,through the contact with the nature. The public visitation scheme is defined in the management plan of the respective unit. Is this plan which indicates that partcan be visited, which is a restricted area where research can be camp or not, which may or may not be done within the area.
Sustainable use units are those whose basic goal is to reconcile nature conservation with sustainable use of parcel of their natural resources. Them is allowed the exploitation of the environment, provided that it is guaranteed the continuity ofenvironmental resources and ecological processes, maintaining biodiversity andother ecological attributes, so socially just and economically viable. In this groupare the environmental protection areas (APA), Relevant ecological interest areas(ARIE), National Forest (FLONA), Extractive Reserve (RESEX), Wildlife Reserve (REFAU), Sustainable Development (RDS) and the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN), the latter being of private character.
Although outnumbered, there are particular protected areas due to the impossibility of creating public reserves everywhere and also because there are some areas that should always be protected regardless of your location, such as the banks of rivers, springs and tops of hills. In this sense, the two types of protected areas are complementary.
Until 2007, the federal agency that took care of the conservation units was the IBAMA – Brazilian Institute of environment and renewable natural resources. However, since August this year, the federal Government shared the IBAMA and created the Chico Mendes Institute for biodiversity conservation (ICMBIO), now responsible for Federal protected areas. In all, the ICMBIO makes the management of integral protection units 126 and 166 of sustainable use in the country.
Besides the areas, the Federal States and municipalities also have the mandate for creating protected areas within their territories.
On the Trails, Paths in the section where & go, you will have access to information about various protected areas where there is practice of ecotourism. check out.
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